By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

ISBN-10: 364237901X

ISBN-13: 9783642379017

ISBN-10: 3642379028

ISBN-13: 9783642379024

Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in actual lifestyles, frequently calls for the certainty of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. according to a long time of training adventure, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a strong instrument to fulfill such demanding situations. they supply an easy consultant to the basics and purposes of acid-base diagrams, heading off complicated arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It bargains studying positive aspects similar to boxed effects and a suite of formulae.

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**Extra resources for Acid-Base Diagrams**

**Example text**

This is a negligible concentration compared to that of BÀ (8 Â 10À6 mol LÀ1), and hence one can write cH3 Oþ % cBÀ (64) This means that the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the H3 Oþ and BÀ lines gives the pH of the solution with a very satisfying precision. For deriving a simplified equation, the amount balance equation (18) of a weak acid has to be considered: À C HB ¼ cHB þ cB (18) On the left side of P1, it is a well-based simplification to neglect the equilibrium concentration of BÀ relative to that of HB: cHB % C HB (91) The simplified equation follows after some rearrangements: Simplified equation for a weak acid in high concentration: cH3 Oþ ¼ qﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ Ka C HB (93) 48 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for.

2 Very Strong Acid in Low Concentration A hydrochloric acid solution of an overall concentration of 10À6 mol LÀ1 is presented in Fig. 33: Since Eq. (49) holds here also, the real pH must be situated on the pH scale left of P1. Furthermore, it holds that the concentration of HCl is negligible compared to that of the chloride ions. Hence, Eq. (18) can be simplified as follows: c BÀ % C HB (65) 38 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . Fig. 33 pH-logci diagram of hydrochloric acid (pKa ¼ À7) at 10À6 mol LÀ1 concentration.

62): cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ À cHB (62) From this follows that the pH of the solution must be somewhat higher than the pH-coordinate given by P1 in Fig. 43. Otherwise, the sum cH3 Oþ þ cHB would exceed the concentration of cOHÀ . 8 Â 10À12 mol LÀ1 (cf. , it is negligible with respect to the concentration of HB at the point P1. Hence, the Eq. (62) can be simplified to yield the relationship equation (78): cHB % cOHÀ (78) 50 4 The Application of pH-logci Diagrams for. . Fig. 25) From this follows that the pH-coordinate of the crossing point of the OHÀ and HB lines gives a very good estimate of the real pH of the solution.

### Acid-Base Diagrams by Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz

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