By G. J. Heij, T. Schneider
This publication includes the consequences and conclusions of intensive study at the motives and results of acidification of forests/forest soils and heathland within the Netherlands. In 1985 the Dutch precedence Programme on Acidification was once all started with the intention to supply a extra concrete shape to the expanding curiosity of policy-makers within the results of pollution on ecosystems specifically. within the final 3 years, the examine has fascinated about acquiring a extra actual estimate of the emission of ammonia at the deposition of SOx, NOy and NHx, and in addition on quantifying results on woodland and heathland ecosystems. This quantification of results integrated experimental paintings version analyses, and derivation of severe a lot and degrees for wooded area and heathland ecosystems. in addition, state of affairs analyses have been made with the Dutch Acidification structures version (DAS) so one can evaluation the effectiveness of coverage measures. The learn itself, which shaped the root for this ebook, has been defined within the reviews on person tasks. A precis of the clinical effects and conclusions is given in thematic reviews (added as annex).
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Extra resources for Acidification Research in The Netherlands: Final Report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification
M-3. m-3). Dominant species (Calluna and grasses) are hardly affected by SO2 at current levels. - Although 0 3 is one of the most important air pollutants, there are hardly any data on the sensitivity of heathland vegetations to Q. The Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification did not include any research on this. - The effects of NH3 on heathland vegetations were extensively studied as part of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification,but a critical level could not be indicated. Table 6. Critical levels of and SO2 for forests coniferous forest (poor sandy soils) Q concentrations* 50 deciduous forest explanation 50 these critical levels are related to visible damage and to inhibition of translocation of assimilates to roots 25 these values are related to visible damage (daily average) so2 25 (yearly average) * during growing season - 25 - 1.
The measured emission factors for poultry (housing) are probably underestimated. Storage of solid manure from layers and broilers can cause considerable ammonia emission, which is not included in the measurements. Emissions can not be measured easily for all housing systems, particularly for those which are naturally ventilated. The research on emissions after landspreading shows a wide variation in ammonia losses during and after surface application of manure. Factors influencing the evaporation are weather conditions, soil conditions and physical properties of the manure.
1 Introduction Within the context of this report, the following (ECE) definitions of critical load and critical level are used. - 21 - Critical load; a quantitative estimate of an exposure (deposition) to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge. Critical levels: concentrations of pollutants in the atmosphere above which direct adverse effects on receptors, such as plants, ecosystems or materials, may occur according to present knowledge.
Acidification Research in The Netherlands: Final Report of the Dutch Priority Programme on Acidification by G. J. Heij, T. Schneider