By Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson
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Additional info for Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2)
Treating the two together, they were observed every 12-16 encounters at the two low areas, whereas at the high-density area they were observed only once every 30 encounters (see also Mossop 1971). 4 Predator avoidance behavior Flushing is the most obvious predator-avoidance behavior. The flushing distance, or distance between the observer and grouse when it flew, was the easiest feature of this behavior to quantify (Fig. 9). Again there was no significant difference between the two low areas. Flushing distances were longer at the high area in each sex and age category.
T. 1 Introduction The Chitty hypothesis (Chitty 1967) of population regulation predicts that the phenotypic and genotypic qualities of animals in increasing and decreasing populations differ in fitness components. Individuals in declining populations have been selected for their competitive abilities during peak numbers; individuals from increasing populations, although inferior in competitive abilities, are genetically better suited to colonize vacant habitats and are superior in reproduction as a result of selection pressures at low densities.
Survival and dispersal of colonizing birds of different genotypes Genotype3 % of birds released % of birds that survived 1 year % of survivors that dispersed (<3d ) or did not nest ( 9 9 ) NgS/NgM NgM/NgM NgM/NgF 23 60 17 24 61 14 50 43 78 a As determined by electrophoretic banding patterns (Redfield et al. 1972). moved the greatest distances; and MQ birds were the final ones released, on 19 May, and moved intermediate distances. The release site on Moresby had been selected as a "preferred" habitat, a high elevation with an open, Douglas fir forest.
Adaptive Strategies and Population Ecology of Northern Grouse (v. 1 & 2) by Arthur T. Bergerud, Michael W. Gratson