By Zev Levin, William R. Cotton
This ebook reports present wisdom at the courting among aerosols and precipitation achieving the Earth's floor. It encompasses a checklist of concepts that may aid to farther develop wisdom during this area.
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Extra resources for Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review
1991; Pandis et al. 1994). Evaporating clouds also release sulphate particles that are somewhat larger than non-cloud processed aerosol because of the additional material deposited onto them in clouds (Radke and Hobbs 1969; Easter and Hobbs 1974; Hegg et al. 1980; Hegg and Hobbs 1981; Hoppel et al. 1986; Birmili et al. 1999; Feingold and Kriedenweis 2002). It has been estimated that $80% of sulphate mass globally is formed in the aqueous phase, and the remainder from the gas phase. As expected from the Kohler ¨ curves, larger sulphate particles serve more efficiently as CCN (Hegg 1985; Leaitch et al.
1 to 10 km and air ascends in them with velocities up to a few meters per second, although updraft speeds of several tens of meters per second can occur within small volumes of large convective clouds. Within stronger updrafts, ascents of a few kilometers typically produce condensed water mixing ratios of a few grams per kilogram. Mixing ratios of more than 10 g kgÀ1 are possible in very strong updrafts within deep cumulonimbus clouds. The lifetimes of convective clouds range from minutes to several hours.
The most common way clouds form is therefore when a buoyant parcel of air is lifted (convective ascent) and cooled by adiabatic expansion. 658C per 100 m) than in clear air adiabatic ascent (18C per 100 m), because of the latent heat released by condensation. The corresponding rate of condensation depends on the temperature and pressure of the cloud cell. For example at 900 m and 208C, it is in the order of 2 g mÀ3 kmÀ1 of ascent. When the cloud base temperature and pressure are determined, the mixing ratio of condensed water at any level above cloud base can be derived as the difference between the water vapour mixing ratio at cloud base and the saturation water vapour mixing ratio at that level.
Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation A Scientific Review by Zev Levin, William R. Cotton