By Joshua Mitteldorf
Because the Nineties, laboratory characterization of getting older has been diverging from predictions of evolutionary idea, specifically within the region of genetics. simultaneously, a technological know-how of multilevel choice has chanced on its position within the evolutionary literature. the writer means that facts warrants attention of a brand new paradigm for evolution of getting older, and proposes the demographic idea of senescence, wherein getting older has been affirmatively chosen since it degrees the loss of life expense over the years, assisting to stabilize inhabitants dynamics and forestall extinctions. Read more...
summary: because the Nineties, laboratory characterization of getting older has been diverging from predictions of evolutionary conception, specially within the region of genetics. simultaneously, a technological know-how of multilevel choice has came upon its position within the evolutionary literature. the writer means that proof warrants attention of a brand new paradigm for evolution of getting older, and proposes the demographic idea of senescence, wherein getting older has been affirmatively chosen since it degrees the dying cost over the years, assisting to stabilize inhabitants dynamics and stop extinctions
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Extra info for Aging is a group-selected adaptation: theory, evidence, and medical implications
Elegans worm to die early when there is danger of overpopulation is a powerful hint. The purpose of the CR adaptation is to adjust lifespan to complement the death rate from starvation. When starvation deaths are high, aging deaths are low and vice versa. In starving animals, it is also true that stress resistance is enhanced. In fact, the genes that signal life extension have very generally been found to be the same genes that fortify stress resistance. The mechanisms are one and the same. Animals respond to caloric restriction with better resistance to disease , enhanced agility and speed , and quicker, more reliable neuronal responses .
Similar to the dauer, the CR response is a decision to forgo immediate reproduction, to lengthen lifespan, to bet on survival and an opportunity to reproduce later. * In addition to the extremes of dauering, the worms also have a CR adaptation, and they decide how long to live and how rapidly to reproduce based on chemical signals they pick up about how much food is around and how many other worms are competing for that food. All this is done with 302 nerve cells. We know that the nerves are making the decision, rather than some purely chemical signaling, through elegant experiments at Ruvkun’s Harvard lab  and Guarante’s lab at MIT .
To see this effect, methionine intake must be restricted at a level lower than any natural protein source would permit, so the experiment is done with synthetic chows, containing refined and re-mixed amino acids. Timing of food intake is also important in a way that escaped the notice of CR researchers for many years. Intermittent fasting can lead to substantial life extension, even if total caloric intake is unaffected. Mice that are fed every other day tend to double-up when food is available, so that their total caloric intake is barely diminished from ad libitum fed mice.
Aging is a group-selected adaptation: theory, evidence, and medical implications by Joshua Mitteldorf